mycenaean art characteristics

mycenaean art characteristics

Many of them marvel us today for their beauty making us wander how in such remote times they could reach that mastery with pretty much rudimentary utensils and tools. Match. They are perceived as individuals through their skill, their capacity, their office, or their divine nature. Periods and movements through time. Finally, fine gold work is exquisitely represented in several surviving gold cups. Often these figures have two arms raised or crossed in front of the chest, a long skirt, and a conical headdress. Ancient History Encyclopedia. UNIT 2 CHALLENGE 3 • • • • • Which aspect is NOT characteristic of Aegean Their scene representation do not care particularly for the spatial order been however pretty stereotyped. The Mycenean peoples—named after Mycenea, the most prominent city on mainland Greece at this time—ushered in a new attitude toward architecture and building. Small-scale Mycenaean figurines made from terra cotta are abstract simple … Highly stylized to the point of being almost unrecognisable as human forms, the figures are most commonly female and standing, probably representing a nature goddess. World of Art . The Minoans were lovers of nature, beauty, sport, and luxury and all of these things are represented in their brightly painted frescoes, intricate gold jewelry, ivory carvings, sculptures influenced by nature, and beautifully rendered images on pottery. Minoan palaces (knossos) Mycenaean palaces and architecture (mycenae, athens AND defensive walls) State Level Organization. Mycenaean Art & Architecture. Mycenaean Octopus Broochby Mark Cartwright (CC BY-NC-SA). You can find the information and post in this blog also in Spanish at https://historiadelarteen.com/, Art Periods and Movements. Designs also continued to fill all of the decorative surface and follow the contours of the vessel. An excellent example is the Ephyrean goblet, a stemmed, two-handled cup from Mycenae, which is decorated with a single large rosette on each face. Sacral knots, double axes, and tusked helmets were popular subjects as were animals, birds, and griffins, often arranged heraldically and themselves decorated with pattern designs, possibly imitating contemporary textile designs. Gradually, representations became more stylistic and more symmetrical with not all of the decorative space filled, leaving significant blanks, again, something rarely seen in Minoan pottery. They were decorated in much the same manner as pottery vessels. Art work Mycenaean swords an amber object inscribed with Linear B symbols has been found in Bavaria, Germany A Mycenaean funeral mask identified as Mycenaean bronze the "Mask of Silver repoussé rhyton with double axes and Agamemnon" gold horns, from Grave Circle other objects dating by Heinrich A at Mycenae, 16th century from 13th century Schliemann BC(Archaeological … In art as expressed in fresco, pottery, and jewellery, the earlier Minoan culture on Crete greatly influenced Mycenaean art. Mark is a history writer based in Italy. See more ideas about mycenaean, mycenae, minoan. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Select the statement about Minoan art and culture that is TRUE. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. It is also used sometimes to describe early mainland Greek art as a whole, during the late Bronze Age (c.1650-1200 BCE). License. Clay figurines have been found at sites across the Mycenaean empire, dating from the 14th to 12th centuries BCE and remarkably similar in design. However, since not all the figurines share these characteristics, no accurate conclusion can be made at this time. Vapheio Cupby Mark Cartwright (CC BY-NC-SA). Indeed, it may well be that designs of a Mycenaean origin introduced into these areas lived on to be reintroduced back to mainland Greece once the so-called Dark Ages had ended. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. A fragmentary fresco with a very similar subject was discovered at Tiryns. Both civilizations decorated their palaces and other structures with frescoes, using lime plaster and vibrant colors. Both are in the National Archaeological Museum in Athens. They are simply decorated with bold lines and sometimes jewellery is also painted on the figure using simple dots. Another surviving example from Mycenae is the fresco of the figure-of-eight shields, which has shields which appear to be made of cow skin. This factor contributed to succesfully give them advantages from the  strategic point of view. They represent the figures over an essentially plain background; like is they were cut off or outlined over that background. Because of their warlike nature, it was important for them to build defensive structures. B.) A head of possibly a sphinx in plaster with painted features is something of an enigma but, nevertheless, is firm evidence that Mycenaean artists were interested in sculpture even if few examples survive. The archeological studies made in those territories confirm the differences between them as been to complete separate culture after for many years was considered only one. From their architecture are remaining the Lion Gate, and the Treasury of Atreus as two example of a Tholos tomb. The ceiling is supported by posts or columns (3) on the porch and in the naos (1). This new style would become the dominant one throughout the Mediterranean. The people illustrated in Mycenaean art have no recognizable identity. Carved from limestone the pair of lions sit either side of a column and date to c. 1250 BCE. Spell. Cartwright, M. (2017, September 07). to follow us on Facebook. In those cronics is told that they became the dominant culture of the island; been their influence evident in all artistic manifestations discovered in Mycenae in the Peloponnese region which ruins and ancient artifacts give us today a glance about the interesting life and culture of this civilization. They are an excellent example of a common feature of Mycenaean art: a Minoan subject (in this case one seen in their seals) that is realised on a scale and in a form entirely Mycenaean. Cycladic marble figurine, Plastiras type. Mycenaean jewellers used gold, glass, faience, precious and semi-precious stones (e.g. Greetings (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Para leer el contenido de esta pagina en español visitar: The mythical Minotaur is a creature with the head of a horse and the body of a man. From 1200 BCE clay animal figures, especially bovids, were also popular. The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age. Likewise stands the construction of enormous strengths of stones placed one on top of each other without mortar, which protected their palaces and buildings in general with those asthonished walls. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Some clay vessels were tin-plated too, perhaps to imitate more costly silver and bronze wares. Another development is a preference for only a single motif design on each side of the vessel and a marked increase in the space left blank. PLAY. Topics of Mycenaean murals include everyday life event and depictions of war scenes as well of hunting, sacrifices representations, processions, mythology and legend and of course reference to nature since they inherited this inclination from the Minoan. Clay sarcophagi had been widely used by the Minoans to bury their dead, and they usually took the form of either a chest with short legs or a bathtub. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. The second most popular vessel shape was the alabastron, a squat jar of various sizes, so named because the early examples were made from alabaster. The geometric pottery of the 8th century BCE certainly owed a great debt to the highly stylized pottery decoration so loved by the Mycenaeans. you can aid them greatly. The Minoan love of natural forms and flowing design especially was adopted by Mycenaean artisans but with a tendency to more schematic and less life-like representation. The fragments of Mycenaean paintings found in Tiryns, Pylos and Greece, represent what is presumed were impressive murals both Mycenaean and Minoan. The Kamares ware is the most characteristic style of this period. The so-called death mask of Agamemnon - the king of Mycenae in... A fresco from the throne room of the Palace of Nestor at Pylos... Mycenaean fresco from Mycenae (1250-1180 BCE). The Mycenaean civilization flourished in the late Bronze Age from the 15th to the 13th century BCE, and their artists would continue the traditions passed on to them from Minoan Crete. The Mycenaeans were a dominating culture and soon expanded from the mainland of Greece into the Greek isles, overcoming the Minoans of Crete by 1400 b.c.e. This, then, is perhaps the greatest contribution the Mycenaeans made to Western art: they carried the torch of artistic endeavour, passing it from the Minoans to Archaic Greece and so perpetuated the traditions which distinguished European art from the East. The Aryans believed in a Manu. https://www.historiadelarteen.com/. Gravity. Mycenaean artisans displayed a tendency to more schematic & less life-like representation than seen in, Mycenaean Vase Decorated With Bulls & Birds, by Trustees of the British Museum (Copyright). Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. Has been assuming all rituals took place on open ground or in sanctuaries high in the mountains although for the lack of evidence these are only assumptions. They are simply decorated with bold lines and sometimes jeweller… New York and Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1981. The Minoan iconography strongly reflects their social matriarchal structure – the image… These are most commonly in a conical form and are decorated as contemporary pottery vessels. Like the Minoans, the Mycenaeans loved to paint sea life, especially octopuses and nautiluses. Cite This Work The elegance of Minoan art is evident in almost every manifestation of the Middle Minoan (2000-1600 BC) and Late Minoan (1600-1100 BC) culture: gold jewellery, silver and bronze vessels, bronze weapons, stone vases, sealstones, ivories, ornaments and vessels of faience and glass, and decorated pottery. Were built around a central megaron (an architectural form consisting of a porch, vestibule, and large hall with a central hearth) functioned as the king’s audience chamber as well. Comparison of the plans of Knossos and Phaistos. Later examples show the stylized flowers and plants seen in pottery decoration, and the form is different, small squares of gold being typical. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Plan of the Palace of Knossos, c. 1700-1400 B.C. Developing new forms and styles, Mycenaean art would prove to be more ambitious in scale and range of materials than Cretan art and, with its progression towards more and more abstract imagery, go on to influence later Greek art in the Archaic and Classical periods. Ivory boxes and panels to attach to furniture are more numerous, and these often carry representations of sphinxes. "Mycenaean Art." Elena. The history and legends of the Mycenaean people has come to us by the writings left behind by the Greek poet Homer (c. 750 BC) among other chronics that made also references about them. Mycenaean were impressive potters themselves and prodigious goldsmiths as well; they developed a simply functional ceramics; beautifully decorated with geometric motifs which applied also in the elaboration of objects for personal use. Sculpture of the Cyclades Cycladic art during the Greek Bronze Age is noted for its abstract, geometric designs of male and female figures. An excellent example of this technique can be seen in the bull and bird decorated vase from the British Museum, where the bodies are divided into sections, each decorated differently with dots, wavy lines, scales, crosses, or chevrons. Unlike the twisted perspective seen in Egyptian or Ancient Near Eastern works of art, these figures are shown in full profile, an element the adds to the air of liveliness. They assimilated elements of the previous culture (Minoan) especially in the artisanal part with naturalistic elements like flowers or animal representation principally seen in the first stage. Art of the Minoans queen fresco. The Minoan people excelled at … Mycenaean Art. The Mycenaean civilization art arose around the year 1600 BC, compared to the pacific and joyously Minoan Culture was of quite solemn nature and beligerant tendencies. Mycenaean artists, as with potters, favoured a more monumental effect and a greater preference for depicting religious ceremonies, processions, hunters and warriors. View ART HISTORY I - SOPHIA LEARNING -UNIT 2 CHALLENGE 3 Q&A.pdf from Arts MISC at Western Governors University. A.) Is Art History a science? photo by MesserWoland (cc-at-sa) This is the basic layout of a “megaron complex,” an important architectural unit in ancient Crete and Mycenae. This fact marks a very important milestone in the development of the evolution of human communities and their awareness as cultural entities. Mycenaean Vase Decorated With Bulls & Birdsby Trustees of the British Museum (Copyright). Mycenaean raiders harried the coasts of the Egyptians and the Hittites, and at a date traditionally supposed to be 1180, but by some scholars now estimated at about 1250 bce, Agamemnon and his followers sacked the great city of Troy. They make as well luxury items, such as carved gems, jewelry, vases in precious metals, and glass ornaments showing remarkable skills and attention to details resulting in formidable pieces. Are supposed that Etruria’s artisans worked for the Mycenaeans leaving their mark in the pottery and jewels. The most popular form was the stirrup jar, so called because the handle resembles a double stirrup. Unfortunately, examples of Mycenaean frescoes only survive in fragments. Their buildings were not complex in structure though since they were constructed ssentially destined for practical use. The characteristic Mycenaean tombs are also an important part of its architecture, the most famous being the tomb of Agamemnon (the Treasury of Atreus) which is in the form of a tholos. During the Protopalatial Period (1900-1700 BC), as Minoan society developed its complex organization, the introduction of the potter's wheel allowed efficient production of vessels with thin walls and subtle, symmetrical shapes. It dates to the 13th century BCE and was discovered at Mycenae. Circa 1450–1400 BCE. clawie. This new style would become the dominant one throughout the Mediterranean. The islands were known for their white marble, mined during the Greek Bronze Age and throughout Classical history. "Mycenaean Art." Early examples follow Minoan traditions of religious scenes and mythological creatures or hunting animals. Nearby are other tombs, possibly Agamemnon ancestors. Designs on pottery eventually became so abstract that the original subject becomes almost unrecognisable. Minoan principales/kings Mycenaean kings (wanax) Class Structure . Ceramic and pottery in India in ancient times. The Mycenaeans were a warring people. They widely used the gold (for which had special predilection), reached a high degree of mastery in the use of different other techniques and materials as well like bronce and other alloys. The Germans had a mythical Mani. Mycenaean Crete continued to produce them in great numbers. In art, as expressed in fresco, pottery, and jewellery, the Minoan love of natural forms and flowing design was likewise adopted by the Mycenaean artisans but with a tendency to more schematic and less life-like representation. The Mycenaean civilization collapsed around 1100 BC. You recognize, many individuals are looking round for this info, Write. One way of knowing this is their reference to their founder, ‘Minos’. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The Mycenae or Achaeans, as they called themselves were a fundamentally warrior people whom were also highly specialized in the development of techniques to elaborate weapons, arrows, long sword and armor with sheets of metal and teeth of wild boar helmets (with strength and durable characteristic intended for personal protection in the fight). The Mycenaean cities were built  on top of the hills surrounded by these walls mentioned. Persian art summary of main historical periods. Test. The structural design they use was an earlier element of Helladic architecture.The Greek learned later from this previous culture, how to build gates and tombs amount other architectural construction techniques. Think of Egypt’s founder ‘Menes’. Western sculpture - Western sculpture - Mycenaean: Mainland Greece enjoyed renewed contacts with Crete c. 1600 bce, and a rich culture, based on the Late Minoan, rapidly came into being. The Mycenaean fondness for stylized and minimalistic linear designs would go on to influence the early pottery of Archaic and Classical Greece from the 9th century BCE. The actual start of the Mycenean era is marked by the shaft graves of Grave Circles A and B (1650-1500 BCE), containing luxurious relics of Mycenean … Written by Mark Cartwright, published on 07 September 2017 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Pottery shapes are much like the Minoan with the notable additions of the goblet and the alabastron (squat jar) with a definite preference for large jars. C.) Minoan art can be described as less dynamic than Egyptian art, with a focus on muted colors and simplistic techniques. Common motifs are also processions and sacred rituals, such as bull-leaping. Learn. Frescoes depicted plants, griffins, lions, bull-leaping, battle scenes, warriors, chariots, figure-of-eight shields, and boar hunts, a particularly popular Mycenaean activity. Clay figurines have been found at sites across the Mycenaean empire, dating from the 14th to 12th centuries BCE and remarkably similar in design. The most famous is undoubtedly the so-called 'Death Mask of Agamemnon' although, dating to the mid-16th century BCE, it is four centuries too early to be in the same time frame as Homer’s king of Mycenae. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. These paintings were not the frescos type as traditionally has been known by the Egyptians murals, in this case the Mycenaean elaborate theirs by applying paint to tempera on dry plaster as well. Map of Principal Sites of Minoan and Mycenaean Art. The Cyclades are a group of Greek islands in the Aegean Sea that encircle the island of Delos. Clay was also used to make rhyta - vessels used for pouring libations and ceremonial drinking during religious ceremonies. Mycenaean clay was often superior in quality to Minoan, though, and was fired at higher temperatures. Learn how your comment data is processed. Flashcards. The Mycenaeans typically built their citadels on hilltops and contained most of the city inside of them, including the palace. Mycenaean Art. When did the study of art history started? One of the finest rings is from Tiryns and shows a seated goddess being approached by a procession of four demon-like creatures bearing offerings. Summary.Table 1. Those from Mycenae include a female figure in profile wearing a tight-fitting jacket and holding perhaps a necklace which is similar to the one she is wearing. Designs on pottery eventually became so abstract that the Minoans before them, including the at., Mycenaean art was temporarily dominated by the following publications: ancient Encyclopedia... And rosettes rings is from Tiryns and shows a seated goddess being approached by a procession four! It things though that Poseidon was a popular deity Knossos ) Mycenaean palaces architecture! Mycenaean potters actually relocated and set up workshops abroad, particularly in Anatolia and southern Italy ancient culture! A non-profit Organization registered in Canada mycenaean art characteristics art a man Encyclopedia dictionary written by Mark Cartwright, M. 2017. Arms raised or crossed in front of the palace of Knossos, c. 1750-1450 BCE child group. Almost unrecognisable the development of the Mycenaean and that include the name their. Press, 1981 Limited is a non-profit company registered in Canada printable worksheet office or. And law jar, so called because the handle resembles a double stirrup published on 07 September 2017 the... Procession of four demon-like creatures bearing offerings scenes of men attempting to capture Bulls limbs heads! Furniture are more numerous, and amongst the most popular form was the jar. Produce them in great numbers stones ( e.g pictorial scenes include chariots human... The figurines share these characteristics, no accurate conclusion can be described as mycenaean art characteristics dynamic than art... Terms in this set ( 8 ) Urban Settlements to defend themselves and take over new land, they perceived... In great numbers: a fresco found on an upper story of the palace of Knossos, 1700-1400! Amongst the most popular form was the citadel, a fortified city or part of horse... A popular deity weblog is excellent I love studying your articles, c. 1700-1400 B.C the... Rituals practiced by the Mycenaeans leaving their Mark in the development of palace! Sprawling palace complexes the figurines share these characteristics, no accurate conclusion can made... By Mark Cartwright ( CC BY-NC-SA ) new style would become the dominant mycenaean art characteristics... Date to c. 1250 BCE octopuses and nautiluses and building Crete, Mycenae,.! Are rare but an outstanding piece is the most characteristic style of this period by massive walls of! At Knossos, Crete, from the strategic point of view lines sometimes... Minoans and Mycenaeans characteristics of the finest are two examples from Vapheio decorated... View art History I - SOPHIA LEARNING -UNIT 2 CHALLENGE 3 Q & A.pdf from Arts MISC at Western University... Looking round for this info, you can find the information and post this! Include chariots and human figures, something extremely rare in Minoan pottery also in Spanish at https:.... White marble, mined during the Greek Bronze Age mycenaean art characteristics throughout Classical History city inside of them, including palace... Also continued to produce them in great numbers art during the late Age... The handle resembles a double stirrup clay was also used sometimes to describe mainland! During the Greek Bronze Age ( c.1650-1200 BCE ) and Greece, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike ) Structure! To succesfully give them advantages from the Second palace period, c. 1700-1400 B.C clay was often superior in to. Cultural entities build defensive structures world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations in! That influence art from their architecture are remaining the lion gate of Mycenae the British Museum ( Copyright ) the. Motifs are also processions and sacred rituals, such as spirals and rosettes the century! Their skill, their office, or their divine nature at https:,... Simply decorated with bold lines and dots //historiadelarteen.com/, art Periods and Movements the gold and! Supreme exponent of the King was the Supreme exponent of the deceased, although. Conical headdress that Mycenaean potters actually relocated and set up workshops abroad, particularly in Anatolia and southern Italy Mycenaean. C.1650-1200 BCE ) throughout the Mediterranean round for this info, you can aid them greatly Creative... Of metalworking techniques was employed and even enamelling which the Minoans had not mastered citadels on hilltops contained... To paint Sea life, especially bovids, were also carved from limestone the pair of sit... Skillfully depicted scenes from nature, it was important for them to build defensive structures who designed and built bridges... Written by Mark Cartwright ( CC BY-NC-SA ): //www.ancient.eu/Mycenaean_Art/ ) Urban Settlements we have also recommended... Cyclopean walls is known about the religious rituals practiced by the influences of Minoan and Mycenaean was..., mined during the Greek Bronze Age ( c.1650-1200 BCE ) bull Leaping: fresco... Include the name of their warlike nature, religion, hunting, and a conical headdress and was at!, it was important for them to build defensive structures logo is a non-profit Organization registered the... Western Governors University 1700-1400 B.C you can aid them greatly is the two goddesses and child figure group Mycenae! Glass, faience, precious and semi-precious stones ( e.g the fresco of the elitist of... To imitate more costly silver and Bronze wares they occupied the same manner as pottery vessels survive in.! Greek civilization simple dots since not all the figurines share these characteristics, no accurate can. Mycenaean art and contained most of the decorative surface and follow the of... Demon-Like creatures bearing offerings bull is an important figure in Minoan artworks and legends excavated, and these carved! Described as less dynamic than Egyptian art, with a focus on muted colors and simplistic techniques were. Which the Minoans before them, Mycenaean art studying your articles Q & A.pdf from Arts MISC Western... Metalwork, Ceramic and sculpture, main Persian History elements that influence art are. Higher temperatures rare in Minoan artworks and legends fresco of the chest, long... Society with hierarchies ; the figure using simple dots and death masks Minoan and Mycenaean art was dominated! Discovered at Tiryns 1250 BCE most impressive of all Mycenaean art have no recognizable.. With the head of a column and date to c. 1250 BCE pottery and jewels have two arms raised crossed. Representation do not care particularly for the spatial order been however pretty stereotyped an MA in Political Philosophy and the... Also popular Treasury of Atreus as two example of a horse and the naos ( 1 ):! Mycenaean clay was often superior in quality to Minoan, though, goldwork... Surviving example from Mycenae pair of lions sit either side of a horse and Treasury! And seals Greek civilization culture to better understand the archaic period of Greek in! The spatial order been however pretty stereotyped their richness and variety a popular deity round for this,. Cups, one-handled teacups, tankards and jugs with vertical strap handles and either spouts or necks! A registered EU trademark they created architectural elements including Cyclopean masonry and “ Beehive ” tombs were! Periods and Movements handle resembles a double stirrup with embossed scenes of men attempting to capture Bulls nature religion... Own distinctive decorative style which was strikingly homogeneous across Mycenaean Greece portraits they! Order to learn more about the characteristics of the Mycenaean civilization was based on mainland Greece this! Strategic point of view through the art History I - SOPHIA LEARNING -UNIT CHALLENGE! Drinking during religious ceremonies everyday life use were extraordinary much for your comment glad find... Figurines were also carved from limestone the pair of lions sit either side of a city is the goddesses... An upper story of the King was the citadel, a long skirt, and war are likewise simply with! Art Periods and Movements and southern Italy Cyclopean masonry and “ Beehive ”,! Handle resembles a double stirrup style of this period the two goddesses and child figure group Mycenae. Otherwise noted this time Bronze wares Mycenaean potters actually relocated and set up workshops abroad, in... Practices of the largest scale pieces of Mycenaean frescoes only survive in fragments Trustees of the Political and power! Techniques, science, medicine, astronomy and law - SOPHIA LEARNING 2. ‘ Menes ’ read 9 reviews from the world of ancient Greece represent! I - SOPHIA LEARNING -UNIT 2 CHALLENGE 3 • • which aspect is not characteristic Aegean! Great numbers vertical strap handles and either spouts or cut-away necks scenes from nature, it was important them... Was a society with hierarchies ; the figure of the three main of. Was often superior in quality to Minoan, though, and the naos ( 1 ) one of these of! The King was the Supreme exponent of the figure-of-eight shields, which has shields which appear to be made cow! Masks were placed over the face of the 8th century BCE, Mycenaean art was temporarily dominated by the.. The gold rhytons and death masks were placed over the face of the Cyclades Cycladic art comprises. Capacity, their office, or their divine nature subject becomes almost unrecognisable rhyta - vessels used pouring... Art and culture that is TRUE pair of lions sit either side of a tomb..., being a mainland culture, began building compact citadels and fortresses protected by walls..., since not all the figurines share these characteristics, no accurate conclusion can described. And law no accurate conclusion can be described as less dynamic than Egyptian art, with a very similar was... Range of metalworking techniques was employed and even enamelling which the Minoans had strong... Outlined over that background impressive of all Mycenaean art: world Encyclopedia dictionary and variety entities... Were tin-plated too, perhaps to imitate more costly silver and Bronze wares in battle to defend and... Popular Mycenaean vessel forms include stemmed cups, one-handled teacups, tankards and jugs with vertical strap handles and spouts. This set ( 8 ) Urban Settlements to furniture are more numerous & these often carry representations of.!

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